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Spotlight on Kelsey's
AI Media Expertise

AI media - also known as synthetic media or generative AI - uses artificial intelligence algorithms to generate content ranging from text and static images, to complex, studio-quality sound and video. This technology represents a ground-breaking shift in content creation, as well as how we conceive, produce, and enjoy media more broadly.

The use of AI in the audiovisual sector is however not without risk. There are many serious legal, commercial, and social concerns, including intellectual property rights infringement, threats to electoral processes and political decision-making, and harms posed to individuals through image-based sexual abuse and reputational damage.  

My expertise lies in
navigating the risks and opportunities of using AI in this context. I offer legal advice that considers not just the technicalities of the law, but also pragmatic commercial drivers and creative aspirations - without losing sight of important ethical and human rights implications. Highlights of my work in this area are set out below.

Media Appearances

Media Appearances

In Dispatches: Deep Fakes: Can You Trust Your Eyes? Reporter Morland Sanders shone a light on tech’s dark side and interviewed Kelsey about regulating deepfake technology. 

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Kelsey appeared on BBC Radio 4’s The Future Will Be Synthesised to discuss the legal issues surrounding deepfakes used in the creative and entertainment industries.

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Kelsey appeared on Channel 5 News to discuss the implications of the cheerleader deepfake.

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Kelsey appeared on BBC Radio 4’s Positive Thinking: an end to deepfakes? to discuss the legal, social and technological consequences of deepfakes, and deepfake detection programs.


Major Publications


Kelsey published a chapter in a special report on AI in the audiovisual sector. She provides a tour of personality rights issues across multiple jurisdictions, with with a focus on ghost acting, life and post-mortem personality rights, and infringement issues (notably deepfakes) across several jurisdictions, including California, England, France, Germany, and Sweden. The paper was commissioned by the European Audiovisual Observatory.


In this paper for the Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice, Kelsey considers  whether English law should adopt California’s publicity right in the age of the deepfake. Also available on SSRN.


Kelsey authored the official practice note on deepfakes for LexisNexis, covering how  deepfakes work, applicable UK law, EU proposals of relevance to the UK, and what social media platforms and search engines are doing to counter risks. It also explores technological controls (future tech counters to deepfakes), problem areas concerning technological controls, and problem areas concerning legislative or common law controls.


In this paper for the Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice, Kelsey considers the legal and practical challenges of using someone's image and personal brand for commercial purposes (e.g. an actor as a brand ambassador), and offers advice on what contracts should cover.


Advisory & Projects


Kelsey is an advisory board member of - VERification Assisted by Artificial Intelligence. Funded by Horizon Europe, the EU’s key funding programme for research and innovation, the vera.AI project focuses on disinformation analysis and AI supported verification tools and services. The ambition is to provide solutions that can be used by the widest possible community such as journalists, investigators, researchers and such like, while also setting the foundations for future research and development in the area AI against disinformation.

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The emergence of a new generation of digitally manipulated media capable of generating highly realistic videos – also known as deepfakes – has generated substantial concerns about possible misuse. In response to these concerns, this report assesses the technical, societal and regulatory aspects of deepfakes. Kelsey was interviewed by the European Parliament's Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and contributed to their policy paper, Tackling deepfakes in European policy  (PE 690.039 – July 2021), which identifies five dimensions of the deepfake lifecycle that policy-makers could take into account to prevent and address the adverse impacts of deepfakes.

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Kelsey attended an interdisciplinary expert workshop on deepfakes held by the EPFL International Risk Governance Center in Zurich, Switzerland, in September 2019. There, she contributed to the policy paper Forged Authenticity: Governing Deepfake Risks, which suggests a simple framework for categorizing and prioritizing potential deepfake risks, before providing an overview of 15 potential technological, legal and societal responses.


Kelsey was asked to peer review a risk governance perspective on the deepfake phenomenon, arguing that it warrants greater attention. In this article, the authors distinguish between three levels of harm that synthetic media can lead to: individual, organisational and societal. The paper sets out a framework for prioritising among these harms before  discussing the technical, legal and wider societal efforts that are under way to protect against deepfake risks.

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Speaking Engagements


Kelsey is regularly invited to guest lecture at universities, give presentations at industry events, or otherwise offer training for clients, fellow legal professionals, and members of the public. Below are a few highlights of her speaking engagements.

Kelsey was a keynote speaker at FLOW:London, a day-long event put on by Pixelz, Inc., where professionals from the creative and post-production industries connect and inspire one another. Kelsey's presentation, Generative AI And IP Rights – A Media Lawyer's Perspective, gave a high level overview of the challenges that generative AI poses to traditional copyright protections, and offered some practical tips for content creators.

Kelsey was a panellist for a Synthetic Futures event focused on creativity, AI, and the law. While many uses of synthetic media are covered by existing legal provisions, others, such as synthetic resurrection and the unauthorized commercial use of someone’s likeness, raise interesting questions relating to image rights, privacy, and intellectual property.

Kelsey and her colleague Kate Loxton presented a webinar for LexisNexis, covering an introduction to synthetic media, risks posed by deepfakes, various mitigations and laws, and opportunities and future gazing. View the full webinar on LexisNexis here (requires subscription).

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Copyright: Fair Use

Kelsey was a guest lecturer on the U.S. copyright doctrine of Fair Use for the Kings College London Copyright Law course designed for practising lawyers, regulators and senior level copyright professionals in the entertainment, media, publishing, software and cultural industries. 


Kelsey was a guest lecturer at the 2021 European Legal Security Forum in London. Her presentation focused on the key defences being prepared to preserve authenticity in our increasingly synthetic future. She also outlined the existing and emerging malicious uses of deepfakes law firms need to know about.


Using deepfakes as a case study, Kelsey presented a webinar for the Society of Computers & Law, a UK charity for those interested in technology and internet laws and regulations. She explained how incredibly realistic digital versions of ourselves have the potential to disrupt our personal lives, certain aspects of the law, and society.

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